As a sweet-tooth I have two reasons to love Amsterdam. Apple pies and Pancakes.
Here are my favourite spots in mixed order, mostly depended of the region.
Koffiehuis de Hoek
It is near the canal and has outdoor seating during summer period. Very friendly waiters. Great location with good desserts
Appletart is homemade, sitting at the stand at the bar. Looking delicious. It has raisins as an addition to the classic version.
Pancake was made to order with maple syrup.
The most hyped apple pie spot in Amsterdam. And let me tell you, it's worth the hype. My approach to over sensuliesed is always suspicion, to the degree that I am biased negatively.
Winkel's apple pie though... the crust is thick, crispy, buttery. Whilst eating peaked through the kitchen window, batches of pies cooking in the oven and while at the counter people going to counter to buy whole ones for their family. Apples were nothing of special, but crust won me over.
Rijk Museum's Cafe
One of the easiest spots to find a good apple pie around Museum Quarter is at Rijk Museum's cafe. Cafe is full of tourists coming in and out of the museum, but it is perfect spot for an art break.
I surely need some coffee and .... something sweet after hours of wandering. Their other cakes are pretty tasty too.
Bakers and Roasters
A popular breakfast/brunch spot for locals, reservation is suggested - unless you want to spend 45 min wandering around nearby museum quarter until you get a table. Like I did.
Not a Dutch cafe but a New Zealand one, they serve pancakes stacked up to each other with option to have 3 or 5 stacks. They are incredibly delicious and soft.
Carousel Pancake House
Originally a carousel, now a pancake house next to the canal, very close to Heineken Experience. The middle part of the carousel with horses are preserved. The outside of the pancake house is strongly resembling a carousel.
Amazing pancakes, one of the best quality I had in Amsterdam. During winter they serve great mulled wine too.
Here are poffertjes which are mini dutch pancakes. The one I ordered are topped with powdered sugar.